ВНЕДРЕНИЕ КУЛЬТУРЫ В ПРОЦЕСС ОБУЧЕНИЯ И УЛУЧШЕНИЕ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ
INTEGRATING THE CULTURE INTO THE CLASSROOM AND IMPROVING THE NATIONAL EDUCATION DATA SYSTEM
М. И. Азаренкова
M. I. Azarenkova
В статье обосновывается настоятельная необходимость внедрения культуры как содержательного, воспитательного, психологического и личностного аспекта в современный образовательный процесс. Некоторые конкретные методические приемы, эффективность которых проявилась в процессе проведения разноплановых педагогических экспериментов с контингентом школ и вузов, представляется актуальной и целесообразной в современном образовательном процессе.
The article explains the urgent need for the introduction of culture as a meaningful, educational, psychological and personal aspects in the modern educational process. Some specific methodological approaches, and the effectiveness of which is manifested in the process of organizing different educational experiments with a contingent of schools and universities, it seems relevant and appropriate in the modern educational process
Ключевые слова: интеграция культуры, система образования, образовательная и воспитательная среда, мировая цивилизация, межкультурное сотрудничество, методы решения проблемы, аспекты сосуществования, ролевая игра
Keywords: integration of culture, education system, educational environment, world civilization, intercultural cooperation, methods of solution, aspects of coexistence, roleplay
Look at the stone cutter hammering away at his rock, perhaps a hundred times without as much as a crack showing in it. Yet at the hundred-and-first blow it will split in two, and I know it was not the last blow that did it, but all that had gone before.
Experience real Culture in this cool, homely educational and up-bringing sphere of a family, school, college and University opportunities, with great mental, intellectual, scychological and artistic possibilities , and friendly Teachers-stuff will quarantee to make personal developing, raising and establishing memorable. For a personality him(her)self. For a family. For a nation. For a world civilization, finally.
It is known, good data help to make good results, that is why it seems to be important to think over The Culture In a Classroom guide.
The Culture-Guide for teachers and students in the process of their professional communication examines the strengths and weaknesses of the current elementary, secondary and higher education data system and presents recommendations for improving the system’s usefulness due to involving Culture in the process, as an object, subject and value.
A useful and responsive international education Culture-data system must accommodate the high-priority data needs of its various cultural educational standards and national approaches.
Thinking about Culture in a classroom we may define some important Key-Principles and Precepts of Culture involved and estimated as a real value of teaching and learning. The Culture data should:
— provide valid measures of the underlying cultural phenomena of interest;
— provide reliable measures of the underlying phenomena of culture as interest and object of science;
— be reported in a timely fashion on a schedule that is consistent with decision-making calendars (Executive Summary . Pascal d.Forgion, Jr., Martin E.Orland, p.3, WashingtonD.C., 1990).
In the real practice the teachers develop the core precepts to improve the Culture-Guide in indoor and outdoor activity with students of different nationalities, different levels of personal development and in different countries.
Saying about Culture as a main component of an educational program and daily practice we mean to create some professional items of the effective process as:
— to focus on the high-priority cultural information needs of personal and professional developing future leaders;
— to focus on cultural guestions of what and why rather than how;
— to focus, initially, on cultural discriptors and indicators;
— to focus on four specific data culture domains-
— background( national cultural history, traditions, habits,etc., cultural resources (poems, prose, paintings, pictures, sculptors, drama, tragedy, etc.,cultural school-university process, and cultural students outcomes;
— to focus on issues of cultural data validity, reliability, level of integration and consolidation in unity of people against the war, for the sake of peace and progressive development.
We think there is a better -than-ever chance that the communication of people of the next ten- twenty years is in their peaceful cultural multinational cooperation . It may be expected to be made with early teaching-learning training involving international cultural blocks of information in the professional process of teaching. The whole idea is not new, but it is rather difficult for fulfillment. The simple and effective way appeared to hold some role-plays with students under the headline ».
Educators in many countries have already worked out the possible extensions to lessons, including culture as a core. As far as we mean learning culture in class not only for personal development , but for preventing nationalism and create a friendly cooperation of common-sense leaders , we mention here the most interesting educators’ findings ( SPELTA Newsletter) , we have already approbated successfully.
They are: 1.Ask students to respond, either orally or in writing, to any of those follow-up guestions:
a) How important is a person’s physical appearance in determining his or her ability to do a job?
b) What is the ideal psysical appearance for a man and a woman in your country and culture? In foreign countries and culture?
c) Think of foreign films that you have seen or foreign books that you have read. Are standards of physical beauty the same in the other parts of the world? How do they differ?
d )Which groups are most valued in our country and why?Why do you think other groups are viewed as less valuable? Do you think these ideas can or should be changed?
e) How frequently do you interact with members of other cultures? Groups?
f) Think of all the different cultures, sub-cultures, and groups that exist within our country. How many of these do you belong to?
g) How would society be different, if the contributions, skills and ideas of all cultures were valued equally? Is this possible& Why, or why not?
2. Have groups create a story about an imaginary country where every citizen is from the same ethnic and religious background, where everyone has the same eye and hair color, where everyone’s skills and contributions are identical. Could such a country exist? How would it function? Would it be successful? What problems would it have? Would everyone get along? Would you want to visit such a country? Why? Why not?
3. In groups, have students draft a “ Bill of Cultural Pluralism”, denoting 10 rules, which, if followed, would greatly enhance attitudes towards cultural pluralism.
4. Ask students to consider this guestion : What are the advantages of cultural pluralism? Then ask students to develop a list of strategies that will encourage cultural pluralism and tolerance within their community, and the world, as a whole.
What will they do to help their children appreciate other cultures and sub-cultures?
The motto of the role-plays -seminars we have chosen was like the phrase of Dante »Be practical as well as generous in your ideals. Keep your eyes on the stars and keep your feet on the ground». A series of our role-plays is not intended to be a curriculum. It identifies key topics or concepts about nationalism that all students should learn over the course of the school-University years.
Overcoming nationalism with the help of culture studying and practise in people’s relations may be called basic and common to all progressive societies , no matter what level of economic development they have reached. The methods of solving this problem may be different from one society to another, but having much in common at the same time.
The students were rather independent and productive in the approach to the solving of the problem itself. They had to encounter concepts, principles, and laws of
Culture in communication. The definition of the notion as »aspect of coexistence» belongs to them. Students had to experience the cultural world through different items of foreign cultures before they learn the terms and symbols of tolerance used to explain it.
Coordination among History, Languages, Literature, Earth Science and Religions would help students understand the great meaning of Culture at all stages of societies’ development.
In the course of the series role-play’ concept working out, there are new problems and new complexities to be disentangled every time that we extend the range of our observation nationalism .Knowledge in Psychology influenced greatly upon emphases of the Evaluation Standards of studying nationalism with pointing out items of the so called »Increased attention through cultural studying and Understanding” .The main among them are : 1. Assessing what students know and how they think about nationalism; 2. Having assessment be an integral part of behavior, studying and teaching; 3.Developing problem situation that require the application of number of Actuality of Life Ideas. 4. While working using multiple assessment techniques, including written, oral, and demonstration formats, systematically collecting information on nationalism.
This is the scientific approach to the role-plays. The practical part of it consisted in working out of the concept by the students independently. Having realized that the core of nationalism in behavior of individuals and groups is a conflict, the students compared the the nature of conflicts in a Family and in a world as in a large Family. The students defined the first task as surviving and arising the family traditions. Whose descendants are we? Whose descendants are our opponents we dream to consider then as our friends? Some of the Russians are not able to answer this simple questions. The family tradition is lost for them. And it is one of the reasons why most people have no sense of family honor and pride .Such situation of
primitive communication forced people to solve problems through conflicts rather than through calm dialog in other countries. So , the revival of the World Family should start with the restoration of it’s traditions, culture, moral values in common efforts. From family to family ,from heart to heart – against global conflict, nationalism.
The students have contributed to many communicative forms. Among the others they have chosen rather effective one named as »Don’t stop talking… Some Dos’ and Don’t’s of communicating». These are some items to have been discussed:
— Do you have your whole family practice good communication skills from the most trivial conflicts like who is the leader to lead and who is a person to obey?
— Do you best to understand what’s really on your close and far ones mind. Practice listening for the meaning, not just the words your surrounding speaks.
— Don’t belittle, attack, or destructively criticize. Respect your opponent’s feelings, even you disapprove of his or her action from the first glance
— Don’t give a standard lecture when your opponent has a problem. Don’t use statements like: »After all we have done for you…», »I am really concerned about your health …», etc.
— Do use praise. Everyone loves to be appreciated .But Don’t use it manipulative or you could lose your people trust.
— Don’t let angry words be your last words on an issue. If itr comes to a shouting match, call time out and allow for a cooling-off period. Your goal is to finf a solution, not win a war.
— Don’t give in, and Don’t give up if at first you do not succeed. Try different approaches. It may take time for your point of view to sink in.
— The students discussed the manner and ethics of communication of the sides against nationalism. Among more than one hundred terms of positive and negative communication they have chosen such positive as :confidence, sympathy, objectivity, compromise, trust, kindness, wisdom, charity ,- and such negative as aggression, collision, chantage, conflict, discrimination, confrontation,discredit, opposition, escalation.
There were several ways to select topics for discussion to overcome nationalism theoretically and then use Knowledge in practice. It would be impossible without a special attention and respect to culture s’ involving in teaching and learning. Selecting an outside source for discussion as Internet and mass-media news, for example, had advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage was that the information was urgent and spread widely. The disadvantage was in a lack of true knowledge about countries and people involved in the conflict-events. Special training seminars as role play with students help to raise their education level and enrich their intellectual possibilities. It is well-known that to be armed with information means to be defended or protected from negative and wrong activity of individual as well as a society as a whole. The more we know the more effective we are in our improving the world on the base of human values against nationalism.
— The series of the Role-plays resulted of students answers concerning the concept, structure and real effect of common teacher’s- student’s work . These are some questions:
— Was the role-play useful and interesting for you in your penetrating through nationalism as a notion?
— Do you think that Plays-seminars is your promotional, personal and social ?
— Did you get practical skills and ideas how to opposite nationalism in relations ?
— Would you try to get an activity at this plan of study?
— Were you given special instructions about safety and positive communication?
To great satisfaction of the independent observers the answers of the students appreciated itself highly the positive meaning of Role-plays not only against nationalism., but all negative influence. It may be overcome due to culture in mind, behavior, tasks of development, methods of communication? Living values of the human beings. Their forms may be different, but the principles remain common for all people.What is Culture for teachers and teaching, students and learning, parents and raising-uprbinging? It is multicolored world, as balance for intellect, soul and spirit. As Albert Schweitzer said : “ An optimist is a person who sees a green light everywhere, while a pessimist sees only the red stoplight… The truly wise person is colorblind .”
… A truly wise person sees Culture as Source of Beauty, Power and Knowledge of the World for the sake of maintenance life, as a Culture itself.
Азаренкова Марина Ивановна — кандидат исторических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Академии транспорта Военного института железнодорожных сообщений, г. Санкт-Петербург.